Pedal rods & pedals
Pedals are used to change the pitch of 1 or more strings (typically 2 or more at a time). They can raise or lower a string, depending upon how you want it set up. Pedal rods connect the pedal to a crossbar under the guitar which, in turn, connects pull rods to the changer. You can detach the pedal rods from the pedals so the guitar will fit in its case. Here is a diagram of a typical pedal and pedal rod. Note that different manufacturers have variations in the way the rod connects to the pedal, and in pedal size and design.